|Frye Chapter 3 reading questions
||[Sep. 14th, 2004|09:37 pm]
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1. Federalism is a way or organizing a nation so that two or more levels of government have formal authority over same land and people. In a Federalist system, the central government is granted shared power, the state government is granted shared power, and the citizens vote for state and central government officials. In a unitary government, the central government controls power to all the important places, the state government has little, if any, power, and the citizens vote for central government officials only. In a confederation the central government has allocated power given by states, the state government gives up some of its authority to the central government, but is sovereign, and citizens vote for state government officials. Federalism is important because it decentralizes politics and decentralizes policies. These grant citizens more opportunities to participate at different levels and the states can solve the same problem different ways.
2. The Constitution’s supremacy clause states that the ultimate authority is the US Constitution and ultimately in the hands of the national government. The supremacy of the national government was established in the American Federal system with the help of implied powers, commerce powers, the Civil War, and the struggle for racial equality.
3. States are obligated to grant each other full faith and credit (such as in honoring another state’s marriage certificate, etc,) they are obligated to extradite criminals wanted in other states, and all citizens of each state all receive privileges and immunities of any other state; this means that a state cannot be discriminate against a person from another state.
4. Dual Federalism is a system of government in which both the states and the national government remain supreme within their own spheres, each responsible for some policies. However, in America today we have Cooperative Federalism which is a system of government in which powers and policies are shared between states and national government with the national government having more power. Fiscal Federalism, the pattern of spending, taxing and providing grants in a federal system, is important because it is the cornerstone of the national government’s relations with state and local governments.
5. The two major types of federal aid are categorical grants and block grants. Categorical grants provide state and local governments with most of their federal aid and are grants that can be used only for specific purposes. Block grants are federal aid given to states or communities to be used in any area the states please. The scramble for federal aid is fueled because when there is more money at stake, more people will argue about the distribution of it. Although the national government cannot give direct orders to state and local governments, they can influence the cooperation of the governments by offering more aid to those who cooperate. Some states would rather not receive aid than comply with the federal rules under threat.